Did you like our previous post about discourse markers? Are you willing to get a whole overview of this topic? If so, our Spanish school El Rincón del Tándem invites you to read carefully the post Discourse Markers. Part II. Let’s go there! 🙂

To begin with, we remind you that discourse markers (marcadores del discurso) are word or phrases that connect or order different parts of a speech. They help us to provide ours speech with cohesion, coherence and to sound authentic when speaking Spanish.

In the post we published last week, we said that discourse markers can be divided in 4 different categories. With this blog, Discourse markers. Part II, we are going to explore the last two categories.
So, let’s start….

3. Discourse markers that REFORMULATE what has just been stated in the previous part of the speech. Reformuladores.

They can be further divided in the following sub-groups:

Explicativos. These markers better explain the concept that have been just expressed.

ES DECIR (that is), ESTO ES (rather), O SEA (in other words), A SABER (specifically)


El esposo de mi hermana, o sea, mi cuñado es ingeniero
My sister’s husband, in other words, my brother-in-law, is an engineer.

Esta oferta va dirigida a gente joven, es decir, de 18 a 25 años.
This offer is for young people, that is, people who are between 18 and 25 years old.

De rectificación. These markers reformulate in a different manner the previous discourse. In other words, provide an interpretation of what has been just said.

MEJOR DICHO (or rather/or to put it another way), MEJOR AÚN (better still), MÁS BIEN (rather)


En la universidad están mal vistos los fumadores, mejor dicho, está mal considerado que las personas fumen en las áreas no reservadas a ese fin.
At the university smokers are disliked, or to put it another way, smoking in a no smoker’s area is frowned upon.

No es un viaje, es más bien una excursión de un día
It’s not a journey, rather a one day trip.

– De distanciamiento. These markers introduce a second part of the speech, meant to be conclusive. At the same time, they diminish the relevance of the idea that has been previously expressed.

EN CUALQUIER CASO (anyway) EN TODO CASO (in any case) DE TODOS MODOS (in any case) DE CUALQUIER MANERA (in any way)


Ya no quedan plazas para la visita guiada, pero tú, de todos modos déjame tu contacto.
There is no place anymore for the guided tours, in any case, please give me your contact number.

Recapitulativos. They sum up what have been just said.

EN SUMA (in short), EN CONCLUSION (in conclusion), EN DEFINITIVA (ultimately), EN FIN (in brief) AL FIN Y AL CABO (in the end)


En conclusión, todos los cambios llevan cosas buenas
In short, all changes bring good things.

No me importa ir al trabajo en bicicleta, al fin y al cabo, sólo son 3 km
I don’t mind going cycling to work, in the end, its’ just 3 km far away.

4. Discourse markers that ARGUE, that is, support an idea with further arguments – Operadores argumentativos.

De refuerzo argumentativo. These markers reinforce an idea.

EN REALIDAD (actually) EN EL FONDO (deep insight) DE HECHO (in fact)


Me parece una pintura maravillosa, de hecho, está expuesta en el museo de bellas artes
I think it’s a wonderful painting, in fact, is exhibited at the Fine Arts Museum.

En realidad no me gustó nada su comida, pero no se lo dije
Actually, I didn’t like the food he prepared, but I didn’t’ tell him.

De concreción. They introduce an idea that illustrates the previous one with examples.

CONCRETAMENTE (specifically), POR EJEMPLO (for example) EN PARTICULAR (in particular)


Vivir en el extranjero tiene muchas ventajas, como por ejemplo, aprender un idioma y otra cultura.
Living abroad has a lot advantages, for example, learning a new language and culture.

Es una exposición muy buena, en particular las fotografías en blanco y negro son espectaculares
It’s a very good exhibition; in particular, the black and white photographs are wonderful.

Finally, we hope this blog on Discourse Markers. Part II helped your Spanish learning.

If you want to learn more about Spanish language and grammar, we will be more than happy to welcome you at our Spanish school El Rincón del Tándem in Valencia 🙂

Have a good day and till the next blog!