Are you ready to learn about discourse markers? If so, have a look at El Rincón del Tándem Spanish school blog. It will give you some useful insights for your Spanish learning!
To master Spanish language, you should to be able to know what discourse markers are and how to use them properly.
Discourse markers are word or phrases that connect or order different parts of a speech.
Their function is to connect ideas logically and to eases the understanding of sentences.
Therefore, discourse markers will help you make a better structured and complex speech, thus providing oral or written texts with coherence and cohesion.
Being able to use them in a speech will make your oral or writing output sound authentic.
To begin with, there are 4 main categories of discourse markers. Let’s see the first two!
1. Discourse markers that STRUCTURE THE INFORMATION – Estructuradores de la información.
Among them, we can distinguish the following sub-groups:
– Comentadores. They introduce a new remark, different from the one previously mentioned in the speech.
PUES, PUES BIEN (well) ASI LAS COSAS (at this point)
¿Te acuerdas de mi amigo de Berlín? Pues se casa la semana que viene
Do you remember my friend from Berlin? Well, she is getting married next month
– Ordenadores. They order concepts in a speech
EN PRIMER LUGAR (firstly) – EN SEGUNDO LUGAR (secondly) – POR ÚLTIMO (lastly)
POR UNA PARTE (on the one hand) – POR OTRA PARTE (on the other hand)
FINALMENTE (at last) , ASIMISMO (as well), DEL MISMO MODO (likewise), PARA EMPEZAR (to begin with), PARA TERMINAR (in conclusion)
En primer lugar, os invitamos a tomar asiento. En segundo lugar, os pedimos, por favor, apagar vuestros móviles. Y por último, ¡esperamos que disfrutéis del espectáculo!
Firstly, I invite you all to take a seat. Secondly, I kindly ask you to switch your phones off. And finally, I hope you enjoy the great show!
Para empezar, este no es un lugar adecuado para una reunión de trabajo
To begin with, this is not an appropriate venue for a work meeting.
Para terminar, deberíamos reflexionar lo antes posibles sobre opciones viables
In conclusion, we should reflect about feasible options as soon as possible
– Digresores. They introduce a digressive remark that goes off the main topic of the speech.
POR CIERTO (by the way) – A PROPÓSTIO (by the way)
– ¿Has ido al teatro anoche?
– Sí. La obra me encantó. Por cierto, he visto a tu amiga Laura, te manda saludos
– Have you been to the theatre yesterday evening?
– Yeas, I loved the performance. By the way, I met your friend Laura. She sends special greetings to you
2. Discourse markers that CONNECT speech parts – Conectores
Connecting markers are also divided in sub-groups according to their function:
– Conectores aditivos. They connect two parts of the speech, both stating the same arguments
ADEMÁS (as well as, besides) – ENCIMA (on top of that) – INLCUSO (even)
No me gusta mi nueva habitación: es pequeña, oscura y además es cara
I do not like my new room: it is small and dark; besides, it is expensive
NOTE: We use encima (even) to strengthen our standpoint. In many cases, we use it with a negative connotation, to convey our disappointment or to complain.
No sé porque me tratas mal. Te he apoyado con todo, incluso he renunciado a un mes de mis vacaciones
I do not know why you treat me bad. I helped you with everything; I even gave up a month from my holidays
– Conectores consecutivos: they introduce the consequence of the previous remark
POR ESO (beacause of that) – POR LO TANTO (therefore) – POR CONSIGUIENTE (hence) – ENTONCES (so) – PUES (so) – ASÍ QUE (so) – DE MODO QUE (so that)
No hay bastantes asientos para todos, por lo tanto me quedaré de pie
There are not enough seats for everybody, therefore I will stand
Me dijiste que me iba a acompañar, así que no me vengas ahora con que no puedes
You told me you would accompany me, so, there are no excuses for you to not come
– Conectores contraargumentativo. Introduce a remark that diminishes or provides a contrary standpoint to the one expressed before
EN CAMBIO (however) – POR EL CONTRARIO (on the contrary) – ANTES BIEN (rather) –SIN EMBARGO (neverthless) – NO OBSTANTE (however) – MIENTRAS QUE (whereas)
Dijo que estaba enferma, sin embargo ha salido de fiesta con sus amigos
She said she was sick. Nevertheless, she went to party with her friends.
Lucas did not mind that I went to the concert with Mario. On the contrary, he was glad I got along with him
A Lucas no le importó que fuer al concierto con Mario. Por el contrario, se alegró de que me llevara bien con él.
NOTE: En cambio and por el contrario connect two parts of the speech that contrast with each other.
We hope you liked this first part of our blog on discourse markers in Spanish.
Finally, our Spanish school El Rincón del Tándem wishes all its students to enjoy their Spanish course and to make the most of their experience in Valencia.
Have a nice day!